The HFSP fellowship program funds innovative, ground-breaking projects that have the potential to advance knowledge in the applicants’ field of study or open a new approach to a research problem. High risk research is supported. Describe the biological techniques they will learn and how their specific skills will bear on the biological project they propose. Applicants should propose a significant departure from their past research, for example, changing from material science or physics to cell biology, from chemistry to molecular biology, or from computer science to neuroscience, among many other possibilities. For applicants with a PhD from outside the life sciences who have had limited exposure to biology during their previous training.